In 1969, Franz Halberg formulated the concept of circadian, or circadian, rhythms and gave an idea of the temporary coordination of the physiological functions of the body. This was the birth of a new interdisciplinary science – chronobiology.
The main, unique and at the same time universal on our planet, for the evolution of biota, is a rotation cycle in its orbit of 24 hours, which is divided depending on the season of the year into different ratios of day duration (from 7 to 17 hours) and night (respectively from 17 to 7 h). The rhythmic pattern of the change of day and night, light and darkness has dominated the Earth for at least 5 billion years. Circadian rhythm disturbance may be genetic or acquired. Long-term mismatch of circadian rhythms of the body is associated with various pathologies, from metabolic disorders, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease to malignant tumors. Genetic abnormalities result from mutations in the clock genes responsible for the generation of cellular circadian rhythm.
The ability to display the circadian rhythm of a person conveys the potential ability to personalize diagnosis and treatment, for example, taking into account typical physiological fluctuations.
Monitoring circadian rhythms will be important for implementing chronotherapy, determining the timing of surgical interventions, or the optimal time to take the drug. The chronobiological method will determine the prospects for pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
A new chronobiological approach to patient care will include: training of medical personnel regarding recognition of circadian rhythms and desynchronosis; development of technology for the quantitative measurement of circadian rhythms in patients; as well as investing in multicomponent strategies (chronobands) to maintain or restore the structure of the circadian rhythm (synchronism, period, phase and amplitude).
Any chronotherapy will ultimately take into account the time of day and the chronotype of the individual patient.
An important goal of this conference is to analyze the studies conducted over the past decade in the field of sports chronobiology, as well as to determine the main directions and prospects for its development. The results show a shift in emphasis in the direction of chronobiological research from studying the dynamics of body functions and working capacity at different times of the day to studying the rhythms of body systems as indicators of a functional state and adaptation processes. The role of physical activity as a pacemaker, which synchronizes and desynchronizes human circadian rhythms, is shown. Methods of chronocorrection and optimization of a person’s functional state are developing. These studies are promising in terms of the further development of sports chronobiology as an applied branch of science.